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Incident Reporting Massachusetts 20-22211 1 Hour Back to Course Index









In a health care facility, such as a hospital, recovery center, nursing home, or assisted living, an incident report is a form filled out to record details of an unusual event that occurs at the facility, such as an injury to a patient or client.

images-2What is the Purpose of an Incident Report?

Incident reports should not be used to blame or punish staff but rather to learn areas of concern and better client/patient safety approaches. 

Incident Reports are used to communicate information to others and document significant events within individual records, as required by state standards.  People often use the information from incident reports when formulating plans or profiles, developing support strategies, and making decisions.

Consequently, the content of the Incident Report needs to reflect clear information in a factual, unbiased manner to avoid passing along opinions and judgments.  What a staff person has to say concerning an incident is essential to others trying to understand what has happened and why it occurred.

Staff should re-read the reports they have written before submitting them to ensure that they are legible, have been completed correctly and that the report honestly states what the writer intended to convey.  All sections of the report must be completed (avoid leaving blanks).  Incident Reports are legal documents that the individual may view, their guardian, designee, or legal representative, and may be utilized by courts.  Be sure to use the full name of staff or providers when referencing them in a report; the initials of staff/providers are insufficient.

imgres-7When Should An Incident Report Be Written?

Staff should prepare an incident report to document unusual or significant events or emergencies involving individuals who receive services or support.  Examples of such events include but are not limited to the following:





  • Injury to an individual
  • Aggressive behavior directed at others
  • Self-abusive behavior
  • Endangering or threatening others
  • Severe illness or hospitalization
  • Imminent death or death
  • Property destruction
  • Serious disruptive situation while in the community
  • Illegal or unusual problematic behavior
  • Being victimized by another individual who receives services
  • Any incident involving the police, fire department, ambulance, etc.
  • Any time someone has physically intervened with an individual when such intervention is not in accordance with an approved behavioral treatment plan
  • Any time an individual is involved in an automobile accident while receiving services
  • Being a victim of a crime reported to a law enforcement agency;
  • Being incarcerated (in jail or prison for at least one overnight stay);
  • Others should note significant accomplishments or other positive changes.

If you are unsure whether to complete an incident report, complete one.

If an incident involves the behavior/injury of more than one individual, separate reports are necessary.  Ensure you do not include confidential information about others on an individual’s report.

images-1Writing an Incident Report

First and most important, don’t delay.  Obtain the proper documentation as soon as possible and fill out the details as clearly as you can remember.  Make sure to outline the following:

-The name and address of the organization.

-The concern in one or two pages, including:

Who – Who was involved in the incident?

What – What exactly happened?

When – When the event occurred; note the specific date and time.imgres-5

Where – Where did the situation occur?

How – How was the situation or event handled?

Safety – Also, if the situation warrants it, implement a safety plan and note what you did to keep everyone safe.


Each person writing an Incident Report should consider the following:

Cause of Incident:

Make every attempt to provide only factual information.  Even if the actual cause of an incident remains unknown after you have attempted to determine it, you should give as much information as you have concerning what happened before the event/during the event, as this may provide a clue to the reader.  If you did not witness the incident or event, you might still write an Incident Report; however, be sure to state that the information is based on what was reported to you and by whom it was reported.


Describe the incident in concrete, behavioral terms.  Do not use generalities…be specific.  Review your report to verify that you have not used judgmental terminology or left unanswered questions.  It is best to prepare an Incident Report immediately following the incident while the facts are still clear.  However, staff may still be emotionally involved at that time, so it may be helpful to have another person review the report before it is submitted.

Please remember that your description of the incident is what other people will rely on to obtain information concerning the individual and the incident.  Your report mustn’t convey negative images of you or the individual when a more neutral one should be given.  Examples: stating someone stole food from the refrigerator when the individual took food out of the fridge.  Your report can influence others, so it must be adequately prepared and provides a factual accounting of the incident.

Reliability of your observation:

Would other people seeing or hearing the incident agree with your written account?  If another person was involved in the incident or witnessed it, consult with that person to ensure that the report concurs with that person’s observations.  When writing your report, use specific terms and clearly describe the behavior that occurred.  For example, don’t use generalities such as aggressive/upset/agitated; state the behavior you observed that made you believe the person was aggressive, upset, or agitated.

Objectivity: When writing your report, be sure you have not allowed an earlier situation or prior information to influence your perception of the current incident.  You are writing your report as a recorder, not as a judge.  Consequently, ensure your report is free from judgmental statements, sarcasm, or condescending comments.


imgres-9Code of Massachusettes 105 164.061  Incident Reporting 

Written procedures for conducting internal investigations, including, but not limited to, responses to any alleged or suspected incident of physical or sexual assault, abuse, or neglect, which occurs at or under the circumstances connected
with the program, must be created.  The Department must be informed immediately and in writing
the next business day of any allegation or incident at or under the circumstances connected with the
program involving the health or safety of clients.  The licensee shall ensure that staff is trained
to understand child abuse and neglect reporting requirements, and such training shall be documented in personnel folders.

164.305 Report of Adverse Reactions states that within 14 days of any adverse physical or psychological reaction to an opioid agonist
medication, the licensee shall report this reaction to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the form and manner required by the FDA. 


images-9The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

  • In 1995, hospital-based surveillance was mandated by the Joint Commission because of the perception that incidents resulting in harm were frequently occurring.  The Joint Commission employs the term sentinel event instead of a critical incident and defines it as follows:
  • An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof.  Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function.  The phrase “or the risk thereof” has any process variation for which a recurrence would carry a significant chance of a severe adverse outcome.
  • The Joint Commission created a Sentinel Event Database as one component of its Sentinel Event Policy.  The database accepts voluntary reports of sentinel events from member institutions, patients and families, and the press.  The particulars of the reporting process are left to the member healthcare organizations.  The Joint Commission also mandates that accredited hospitals perform root cause analysis of important sentinel events.  Data on sentinel events are collated, analyzed, and shared through a Web site, an online publication, and its newsletter, Sentinel Event Perspectives.

images-10How Do You Submit An Incident Report

  • Your organization should have its form to use for incident reporting.  If not, create one with the required information included:
  • Organization Name
  • Organization Address
  • Reporters Name
  • Incident Date
  • Incident Narrative

The preferred method for submitting a patient safety concern to The Joint Commission is through our online submission form, as it allows for a more direct, timely receipt and review of your concerns.

By policy, The Joint Commission cannot accept copies of medical records, photos, billing invoices, or other related personal information.  These documents will be shredded upon receipt.



Patient safety is a priority, and patient care documentation holds the healthcare team members to professional accountability and demonstrates the quality of care you have given.  When the unforeseen happens, and sometimes it does, reporting incidents can help identify potential issues.  We must focus on a blameless reporting atmosphere where healthcare providers feel safe making reports.  Speak up if you have questions regarding your workplace or see areas of concern.