In a health care facility, such as a hospital, recovery center, nursing home, or assisted living, an incident report is a form that is filled out in order to record details of an unusual event that occurs at the facility, such as an injury to a patient or client.
What is the purpose of an Incident Report?
Incident reports should not be used to blame or punish staff, but rather to learn areas of concern and better approaches to client/patient safety.
Incident Reports are used to communicate information to other people and to document significant events within individual records and as required by state standards. People often use the information obtained from incident reports when formulating plans or profiles, to develop support strategies and when making decisions.
Consequently, it is extremely important for the content of the Incident Report to reflect clear information in a factual, unbiased manner to avoid passing along opinions and judgments. What a staff person has to say concerning an incident is essential to other people who are trying to understand what has happened and why it occurred.
Staff should re-read the reports that they have written prior to submitting them to ensure that they are legible, have been completed properly and that the report truly states what the writer has intended to convey. All sections of the report must be completed (avoid leaving blanks). Incident Reports are legal documents which may be viewed by the individual, his/her guardian, designee or legal representative and may be utilized by courts. Be sure to use the full name of staff or providers when referencing them in a report; initials of staff/providers are not sufficient.
When Should An Incident Report Be Written?
Staff should prepare an incident report to document unusual and/or significant events or emergencies involving individuals who receive services and/or support. Examples of such events include but are not limited to the following:
- Injury to individual or caused to others
- Aggressive behavior directed at others
- Self abusive behavior
- Endangering or threatening others
- Serious illness and/or hospitalization
- Imminent death or death
- Property destruction
- Serious disruptive situation while in the community
- Illegal or unusual problematic behavior
- Being victimized by another individual who receives services
- Any incident involving the police, fire department, ambulance etc.
- Any time someone has physically intervened with an individual when such intervention is not in accordance with an approved behavioral treatment plan
- Any time an individual is involved in an automobile accident while receiving services
- Being a victim of a crime reported to a law enforcement agency;
- Being incarcerated (in jail or prison for at least one overnight stay);
- Significant accomplishments or other positive changes which should be noted by others.
If you are unsure about whether or not to complete an incident report, write one.
If an incident involves the behavior/injury of more than one individual, separate reports are necessary. Be sure that you do not include confidential information about others on an individuals report.
Writing an Incident Report
First and most important, don’t delay. Obtain the proper documentation as soon as possible and fill out the details as clearly as you can remember. Make sure to outline:
-The name and address of the organization.
-The concern in one or two pages including:
Who – Who was involved in the incident?
What – What exactly happened?
When – When did the event occur, note the specific date and time.
Where – Where did the situation occur?
How – How was the situation or event handled?
Safety – Also remember, if the situation warrants it, implementing a safety plan and taking note of what you did to keep everyone safe.
Each person writing an Incident Report should consider the following:
Cause of Incident:
Make every attempt to provide only factual information. Even if the actual cause of an incident remains unknown after you have attempted to determine it, you should provide as much information as you have concerning what happened prior to the event/during the event as this may provide a clue to the reader. If you did not actually witness the incident or event, you may still write an Incident Report; however, be sure to state that the information is based on what was reported to you and by whom it was reported.
Describe the incident in concrete, behavioral terms. Do not use generalities…be specific. Review your report to verify that you have not used judgmental terminology or left unanswered questions. It is best to prepare an Incident Report immediately following the incident while the facts are still clear. However, staff may still be emotionally involved at that time so it may be helpful to have another person review the report prior to it being submitted.
Please remember that your description of the incident is what other people will rely on to obtain information concerning the individual and the incident. It is important to that your report does not convey negative images of you or the individual when a more neutral one should be conveyed. Examples: stating someone stole food out of the refrigerator when the individual took food out of the refrigerator. Your report has the ability to influence others, so it is important that it is properly prepared and provides a factual accounting of the incident.
Reliability of your observation:
Would other people seeing or hearing the incident agree with the account that you have written? If another person was involved in the incident or witnessed it, consult with that person to ensure that the report concurs with that persons observations. When writing your report, use terms that are specific and clearly describe the behavior that occurred. For example, dont use generalities such as aggressive/upset/agitated, state the behavior that you observed that made you believe the person was being aggressive, was upset or agitated.
Objectivity: When writing your report, be sure that you have not allowed an earlier situation or prior information to influence your perception of the current incident. You are writing your report as a recorder, not as a judge. Consequently, be sure that your report is free from judgmental statements, sarcasm, or condescending comments.
Florida Statues Regarding Incident Reporting
The 2014 Florida Statutes address Internal Risk Management in 395.0197 stating that every licensed facility should, as part of its administrative functions, establish an internal risk management program that includes the investigation and analysis of the frequency and causes of general categories and specific types of adverse incidents to patients.
In this statute is states that the facility should development appropriate measures to minimize the risk of adverse incidents to patients including but not limited to risk prevention education and training (a minimum of 1 hour annually for all personnel).
The facility should develop and implement the ongoing evaluation of procedures, protocols and systems to accurately identify situations and patients at risk.
The statute states that the incident report should be given to the risk manager or appropriate designee within 3 days business days after the occurrence.
This risk management program has many other requirements as well and should be reviewed in its entirety at:
The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
In 1995, hospital based surveillance was mandated by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), because of the perception that incidents resulting in harm were occurring frequently. JCAHO employs the term sentinel event in lieu of critical incident, and defines it as follows:
An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof. Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function. The phrase “or the risk thereof” includes any process variation for which a recurrence would carry a significant chance of a serious adverse outcome.
As one component of its Sentinel Event Policy, JCAHO created a Sentinel Event Database. The JCAHO database accepts voluntary reports of sentinel events from member institutions, patients and families, and the press. The particulars of the reporting process are left to the member healthcare organizations. JCAHO also mandates that accredited hospitals perform root cause analysis of important sentinel events. Data on sentinel events are collated, analyzed, and shared through a Web site, an online publication, and its newsletter Sentinel Event Perspectives.
How Do You Submit An Incident Report:
Your organization should have its own form to use for incident reporting. If not create one with the required information included:
- Organization Name
- Organization Address
- Reporters Name
- Incident Date
- Incident Narrative
If your organization wants to report directly to JCAHO they can utilize the online form located at:
Patient safety is a priority. Documentation of patient care holds the healthcare team members to professional accountability and demonstrates the quality care you have given. When the unforeseen happens, and sometimes it does, the reporting of incidents can help identify will potential issues are. We need to focus on a blameless reporting atmosphere where healthcare providers feel safe making reports. Speak up if you have questions regarding your workplace or see areas of concern.
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